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In countercurrent distillation (rectification) using a column, the rising vapour can enter into interactions with the condensate. In this manner, a fractional distillation, i.e. a distillation in several steps for the separation of substances with similar boiling points, can be performed in a single apparatus. If bubble tray columns are used condensate can be removed from the individual bubble trays.


  1. Investigate the mode of operation of a fractionating tower on a two-stage bubble tray column. Distil a mixture of three n-alcanes first with total reflux and then without any reflux.
  2. Subsequently, examine and compare the initial mixture, the sump product, the head products and the condensates of both trays gas chromatographically.


What you can learn about

  • Bubble tray column
  • Rectification
  • Continuous and discontinuous distillation
  • Vapour pressure
  • Vaporisation
  • Condensation
  • Raoult's law
  • Gas chromatography


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